Monday, June 14, 2021

What is a domain & How to choose it

 A domain is the online address of a site and its location on the Internet. Technically, a domain address is an entry in the database. When a user enters a domain name in the search bar, the computer understands which site to show and to which address to send the request.

Why do I need domain names?

Any website is a set of web pages that contain content (texts, images, Videos, files, and other information). Pages, along with all their content, are stored on a web server-a real computer. Domain name — the hosting address of these pages. When you enter a domain in the search bar, the browser understands where to look for the desired server.
Previously, site addresses were indicated in numbers. To find a site, the user entered an IP address-a combination of four numbers separated by dots. But if a computer can remember any number of numeric combinations, then it is difficult for people to keep several hundred IP addresses in their head. Therefore, the numbers were replaced with text names.

What is a domain and how to choose it

Compare which address will be more convenient for you to remember:


These are two identical addresses. But one is recorded as an IP address and the other as a text domain.

The task of a domain name is to make it easier to remember the site address. That is why it is preferable to choose a short and memorable word or phrase as a domain.

The domain is also used:

To configure google. Mail. For example, you purchased an address like If you set up corporate mail, users will be able to write to you by email You can use this email address to send bulk emails via the email distribution service.
For parking. For example, you have started developing a website, but you are afraid that someone will take the right address earlier. Purchase a domain, and then place a banner on it with a notification about the upcoming launch of the resource.
For redirects. It helps direct users to another site or page. For example, after a redesign, the site's domain has changed. To avoid losing users, set up redirects — When the user specifies the address of the old site, the browser automatically opens the new site.

What does a domain name consist of?

The domain consists of at least two levels or parts separated by dots. Domains are located in the hierarchy from right to left: third-level, second-level, and first-level. Hierarchical order allows the browser to quickly identify the server you are looking for and the corresponding site. Thanks to the hierarchy, the DNS (domain name system) functions.

First level
The part of the name indicated to the right of the last dot is a first-level domain, domain zone, or top-level domain (TLD).

When registering, choose a domain zone from the available options. A detailed list of first-level domains can be found on the website of the Internet Address Administration (IANA).

Registration of first-level domains is controlled by the international organization ICANN. It stores and distributes a common database of domain names.

First-level domains are divided into two main types:

Geographic — national top-level domains (ccTLDs). Only two letters are used for them, taking into account the international country code. For example, .eu — European Union,. ru — Russia, .ua — Ukraine. These domains most often indicate the site's geo-affiliation. However, there is no prohibition on using an inappropriate extension. Sometimes, to save money, they choose an inexpensive domain name of a small country.
Thematic — shared top-level domains (gTLDs). In theory, they represent the site's theme. For example,. com — commerce, .military — military, .gov — government. But no one checks if the gTLD meets any criteria. Although there are also limited-use domains. So the .int extension is used exclusively for domains of international organizations.
In addition to the first one, there is a zero-level domain-a dot after the domain zone. But this dot is ignored when specifying a domain in the search bar (

Second level
To the left of the last dot is the second — level domain, which is also the main (parent) domain.

The main domain is a unique combination of letters and numbers created as the site name. The selected second-level domain is first checked for uniqueness and only then registered. The second and all subsequent levels are under the domain registrar's jurisdiction. This is an organization that is accredited by ICANN. It can register new domains and renew existing ones.

Third level

To the left of the main domain (from the penultimate dot) is a third-level domain-subdomain or subdomain. Subdomains divide the site into separate sections. For example, to open a blog, people can enter a subdomain and immediately go to the corresponding section, bypassing the main page.

Subdomains make the resource structure more clear. You don't need to create additional addresses for sections on the site with them. In addition, search engines separately index sections — you can promote them separately in the search results.

The owner of a second-level domain has the right to create an unlimited number of third-level domains.

In accordance with the above hierarchy, you can create domains of the next level. The part to the left of the third level of the domain will be the fourth level or sub-subdomain.

How to choose Domain:

For DNS, the type of domain doesn't matter. What is a domain from a computer science perspective? This is any unique combination of letters and numbers.

But the chosen name is important for the audience. For example, an address that matches the company name inspires more confidence in users — they understand that they have found an official resource. You can use a domain name to indicate the scope of your business —,

You can add keywords to the domain name that correspond to the site content. This will have a positive impact on SEO and help you attract your target audience.

Key signs of a good domain:

Brevity. The selected name should be short. This makes it easier to write it in the search bar.
Memorability. If people quickly remember the address of your site, they can enter it in the search from memory. But when a user forgets the address and starts searching for it in the browser, they may well go to their competitors.

Associativity. It is desirable that the domain reflects the site's theme or is associated with the company. This helps you remember the address.
Easy pronunciation. It should be convenient to provide the domain address in an oral conversation or say it over the phone.

No "complex" letters. Some Russian letters are transliterated with several letters of the Latin alphabet, or the same letter can be transliterated in different ways. For example, the Russian " f "can look like" f " or "ph", and the Russian " i "can be written as "i" or"y". Try to avoid such symbols.
Also, when choosing a domain name, you must take into account spelling restrictions. Depending on the domain zones, the requirements may differ.

  • but the general rules are as follows:
  • the total length varies from 2 to 61 characters;
  • you can use Latin letters, numbers, or hyphens as intermediate characters.;
  • the name doesn't start with a hyphen;
  • uppercase and lowercase letters are equivalent; when registering in the zone .Russian Federation or .rus use the Cyrillic alphabet.

What to check before domain registering

Any domain registrar provides advanced verification of selected names through the Who is service, which shows basic information about the domain name (whether the domain is free or occupied, who is the administrator and registrar, what is the registration period). You can register a domain name if it has not been taken over by another owner.

What is a domain and how to choose it and buy domain

You can use the Who is service to search for free domains for free. For example, check with the registrar code 80X7LE6W6g7n6o) address

Enter the address in the search bar and click "Check". After a few seconds, we will see the system's response — "The domain is busy".

Below you can view basic information about the date and place of registration, registrar, administrator and their contact details. This information can be useful if you want to complain to the registrar about domain misuse or discuss with the administrator the possibility of redeeming the address.
If the selected domain is already occupied, you can continue checking other options until you find an empty address.

Who is services also allow you to check the history of the selected domain: who was the previous registrar, when the previous registration started and ended.

Domain history verification is a paid service.

The history of the selected domain name determines whether it is worth buying it or not. So the age of the domain is important when ranking sites — search engines consider old resources more authoritative and it is easier to bring them to the top of the search results.

If the address has previously been filtered by search engines, this can have a bad effect on SEO. You will have to remove the domain name from the filter, which will require a lot of time and money.

You can also check the content of the old site by searching for it in web archives (for example, in Web-archive). View the content, design, and theme on saved copies of web pages. If the domain name was used for a site with questionable content or a company with a bad reputation, it is better not to purchase it.

In some cases, it is important that the selected domain is available for use in social networks. For example, you want to promote a brand with the same name on all sites. The Know Em service will help you check the availability of the selected name in social networks .
What you need to know about buying a domain:

Not a purchase, but a lease

Domain registration for websites is often referred to as a purchase. But you can't buy a domain name and get permanent ownership. It can only be rented for the period pre-set by the registrar's policy.

The minimum lease term for a domain name is one year. For example, domains with the extension .me,. to, .io are purchased for a year and the lease is extended annually.

The maximum rental period is determined by the rules of the selected zone. For example, for a period of up to ten years, you can register domains in the .com, .org .info, .online, and .blog zones.

You will find out the duration of the lease and the procedure for renewal during registration. You can also view this information in the registrar's knowledge base.

Lease extension

To continue using the domain after registration expires, you must follow the terms of use and renew your lease on time. You can do this 30-365 days before the end of the rental period.

If the domain lease ended and the owner did not have time to renew it, then they have 30 days to renew it. This period may vary depending on the registrar. At this time, the site and mail on the domain stop working. The domain name is included in the list of vacant addresses, and other users can bid on it at the domain auction. At the end of these 30 days, any user can purchase a domain.

An additional recovery period is provided for domains in international zones. Within one month after the domain address is deleted, the previous owner has the right to request an extension of the lease. But the cost of the domain in this case will be several times higher than the initial one.

Deleting a domain

Domains in the .ru, .rf, and .su zones are deleted on the day following the end of the preferential renewal period. International domains are deleted after 1-5 days. From this point on, the domain becomes available to everyone. The former owner may try to register it again. However, he no longer has any advantages over other applicants. The first person to register the domain will be the new owner.

How to register

The procedure for purchasing a domain from different registrars may vary slightly. But usually the process consists of two stages:

1. Select a domain name. At this stage, you need to create a domain and check its availability in the selected zone. To do this, enter the desired domain in the search bar on the registrar's website and activate verification. You will see if your option is available or busy. If the address is empty, you can proceed to the next stage.

2. Registration of the selected option. The future administrator provides contact details and pays the bill. Registrars often offer additional services such as hiding personal data, auto-renewal, SSL certificate, and so on.

After registration is completed, you can access domain name management. Now you can choose a suitable hosting service and link a domain to it. Sometimes registrars additionally provide hosting for websites.

Site hosting is a service for renting disk space on the server for storing files and data of a resource. 

A server is a real computer that works without interruptions and ensures that the site is always available. Hosting supports the server, protects it from malicious attacks, and ensures that your content is transferred from the server to browsers.

If you transfer this to real life, then the domain is the address where the house is located, and hosting is everything that is located inside the house.

Immediately after purchasing a domain name, you can link it to your site, create a mailbox, and send regular or targeted mailings to your clients. However, you are not required to use the purchased domain immediately. You can save it "in reserve". According to this principle, some companies buy the same addresses in different domain zones, so that they are not used by competitors.

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